The Richmond Times-Dispatch, December 20, 1999:

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         Travis Charbeneau  3421 Hanover Ave., Richmond, VA 23221
      Phone: 804 358 0417
                       In Defense of Auntie Sacagawea
                             Travis Charbeneau
                                 846 words
                               slug "auntie"
     PULL QUOTE: "It is possible for the politically desirable and
dramatically interesting to also be historically correct."
     The new Sacagawea dollar is under assault for elevating political
correctness above history. The coin and related historical interpretation
celebrate the Indian girl as an essential contributor to the Lewis and
Clark expedition of 1804-5. Among the naysayers, one letter to the Richmond
Times-Dispatch complains that the expedition's original interpreter and
hunter George Drouillard (aka "Drewyer") was in fact "the hero of the
     Dennis J. O'Connor cites an 1807 letter by Meriwether Lewis that
praises Drouillard (whose "marksmanship was so good that it often awed
hostile Indians into leaving them alone") while failing even to mention the
Indian princess. Somewhat to the contrary, Lewis went out of his way to
characterize Sacagawea's husband, Toussaint Charbonneau, as "a man of no
particular merit." As an albeit-distant relation, I feel I must come to the
defense of Sacagawea, if not "Pumpkin Man."
     Apparently, my great-grand whatnot Toussaint was indeed a roguish
character who nonetheless became so familiar to the tribes of the Upper
Missouri that he won a variety of nicknames, including "Pumpkin Man,"
"Chief of the Little Villages" and "Bear of the Forest." Lewis and Clark
took him on as an interpreter, even though the celebrated Drouillard was
already aboard.
     The fact that Charbonneau had a pregnant, 16 year-old Shoshoni wife,
kidnapped as a girl in the far West by his pals, the Hidatsa, may have been
perceived as a serendipitous asset by Lewis. As the expedition blundered
through potentially hostile territory, the mere presence of a woman and a
baby would give assurance that they were no war party -- nicely avoiding
any need for Drouillard's marksmanship. Sacagawea and little Pompey's role
as an advance team alone justifies history's interest.
     But Lewis also noted that Sacagawea was their "only dependence for a
friendly negociation (sic) with the Snake (Shoshoni) Indians on whom we
depend for horses to assist us in our portage from the Missouri to the
Columbia river." And she proved her worth in other ways, compensating
somewhat for her klutzoid husband.
     For example, in May, 1805, shortly after passing Yellow Bear Defeat
Creek, where they bagged themselves a bear and named themselves a creek,
Lewis and Clark were both walking along the banks of a very brisk Missouri,
leaving their pirogues and canoes in the hands of underlings. Both captains
were rarely out of the boats at the same time, and they soon came to regret
this exception. A squall sprang up, and a violent gust of wind hit the
pirogue containing the expedition's papers, books, instruments, medicine
and (Lewis) "almost every article indispensibly necessary to ... insure the
success of the enterprize."
    Unfortunately, Charbonneau was at the helm during this crisis. Both
captains stood on the shore gaping as Charbonneau, "perhaps the most timid
waterman in the world," instead of turning the little sailboat into the
wind "lufted her up into it" and over she went. Lewis and Clark fired their
rifles into the air. They shouted incoherent orders. Lewis stripped off his
coat and prepared to swim the cold, fast river, an act for which, as he
later wrote, "[I] should have paid the forfit of my life."
    Instead they kept shouting useless advice that no one could even hear. 
For 30 seconds the boat shipped water. Expedition-member Cruzatte, at the
helm of the foundering craft, offered to shoot Charbonneau if he didn't
take control of the rudder, and began preparing his rifle. Inspired by
Cruzatte, Toussaint responded even as the crew bailed for their lives.
    Meanwhile, Sacagawea, up to her waist in the sinking boat and holding
her papoose aloft, calmly collected the more precious contents of the
pirogue as these began to wash overboard and float past.
    Lewis: "Charbono still crying to his god for mercy, had not yet
recollected the rudder ... the Indian woman caught and preserved most of
the light articles which were washed overboard ... [and stood] in equal
fortitude and resolution with any person on board at the time of the
     By August, they reached the watershed of the Columbia and Shoshoni
country. Like other tribes they had met that spring and summer, the
Shoshoni were wary until they saw Sacagawea and the baby. Then, incredibly,
when Sacagawea was called in to interpret the all-important horse council,
she recognized Chief Cameahwait as her long lost brother. National
Geographic says, "She ran to him, threw her blanket around him and wept."
The necessary horses were acquired, and Sacagawea further persuaded
Cameahwait to postpone an upcoming buffalo hunt until the expedition could
be seen safely some further distance West.
     The laudable quest for minority and female role models in "his story"
is forever fraught with risk of political correctness, just as any
retelling of events is subject to the "Hollywood or history" critique. But
it is possible for the politically desirable and dramatically interesting
to also be historically correct. Admittedly short on masculine heroics,
Sacagawea seems a sufficiently exceptional historical character to warrant
commemorative imprint on the new dollar. Drouillard may have been a
critical expedition member, but Sacagawea continues to win and hold
posterity's interest and affection.